Okay, so forgive me if I'm a little slow, but I just started watching LOST (from seasons 1 forward), and each time a character is introduced, a little sliver of light sparks in my brain:
John Locke: 17th century English philosopher supporting Independence. (Character named "John Locke" in Lost)
David Hume: 18th century Scottish philosopher, economist, and h...istorian. (Character named [Desmond] David Hume, a Scotsman.)
James Ford: 19th century highwayman/pirate. (Character named "James [Sawyer] Ford" in Lost who is a con-man).
Those are three of the characters that stood out to me based on my knowledge of them.